Distribution of conjunctive and disjunctive forms in Xitsonga

Seunghun J Lee, Crous Hlungwani


The conjunctive and disjunctive forms in Xitsonga are examined with the purpose of presenting the distribution of these forms. While verbs in the conjunctive form are followed by some elements, the disjunctive is used when no element follows a verb. Xitsonga follows these basic patterns observed in other Bantu languages, but previous theories cannot explain all the occurrences of the distinction between the conjunctive/disjunctive forms. In previous work, three major approaches have been proposed: the constituency approach, the focus-based approach and the information packaging approach. Xitsonga shows support as well as counter evidence for all these approaches. This paper will also reexamine the claim that the presence of conjunctive/disjunctive distinctions only exists in the present tense. Following Creissels (2014), we report that the conjunctive/disjunctive dichotomy is present in other tenses as well when prosodic patterns such as penultimate lengthening are further examined.


Xitsonga, conjunctive, disjunctive, information packaging theory

Full Text:


DOI: https://doi.org/10.5842/52-0-712


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 2224-3380 (online); 1726-541X (print)

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Powered by OJS and hosted by Stellenbosch University Library and Information Service since 2011.


This journal is hosted by the SU LIS on request of the journal owner/editor. The SU LIS takes no responsibility for the content published within this journal, and disclaim all liability arising out of the use of or inability to use the information contained herein. We assume no responsibility, and shall not be liable for any breaches of agreement with other publishers/hosts.

SUNJournals Help