’n Behoefte-analise met die oog op die ontwerp van ’n Taal vir Spesifieke Doeleindes (TSD)-kursus vir leerderonderwysers met Afrikaans as tweede taal
Keywords: behoefte-analise, taakgebaseerde benadering, taal vir spesifieke doeleindes, onderwysstudente, Afrikaanse taalverwerwing, Language for Specific Purposes (LSP), needs analysis, task based methodology, Afrikaans second language acquisition
AbstractOpsommingDie implementering van ’n veeltaligheidsbeleid in Suid-Afrika vereis dat die onderrig en leer van Afrikaans as tweede taal, met spesifieke fokus op die onderrig van Afrikaans vir spesifieke doeleindes aan volwassenes (ook op universiteitsvlak), aandag geniet. Onderwysers en onderwysstudente moet daarop voorberei word om effektief onderrig te kan gee, aangesien daar van leerders verwag word om op ’n akademiese vlak met taal te kan omgaan. Die Nasionale Departement van Onderwys verwag onder meer van nuutgekwalifiseerde onderwysers om in die algemeen sowel as binne hul spesifieke vakgebiede effektief te kan kommunikeer aangesien onderwysers as tussengangers van leer optree. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die spesifieke behoeftes van eerstejaar-onderwysstudente met Afrikaans as tweede taal te ondersoek met die doel om ŉ taakgebaseerde Afrikaans vir spesifieke doeleindes-kursus te ontwerp. Sekere faktore moet in ag geneem word by die ontwerp van ’n sillabus, naamlik die kulturele, opvoedkundige en organisatoriese aspekte, die taalaanleerder, die onderwyser en die beskikbaarheid van onderrigmateriaal. ’n Behoefte-analise kan gebruik word om te verseker dat daar aan bogenoemde faktore aandag geskenk word met die ontwerp van ’n sillabus. Nog voordele wat behoefte-analises inhou, is dat onderrigmetodes kan verbeter, onderwysers kan aanpas by die verskillende taalaanleerders in hulle klasse en taalaanleerders deur die leerproses kan lei. Die artikel lewer verslag van ’n ondersoek oor die ontwerp van ’n Afrikaanse spesifiekedoeleindeskursus vir eerstejaar-onderwysstudente. Die spesifieke fokus is op die behoefte-analises wat onderneem is. ’n Reeks metodologiese stappe wat gevolg kan word in ’n behoefte-analise met die oog op kursusontwerp, tesame met die toepassing daarvan, word in die artikel aangebied.A needs analysis with the aim of designing a Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) course for student teachers with Afrikaans as second languageExtended abstractThe task-based approach in language teaching is seen as an effective method for the acquisition of a language as it offers the most opportunities for interaction and negotiation of meaning. The task-based approach is followed in the language acquisition modules, Afrikaans Language Acquisition 178 (Afrikaans for foreign language speakers) and Afrikaans Language Acquisition 188 (Afrikaans as a second language) that is presented by the Department of Afrikaans and Dutch at Stellenbosch University. The purpose of these language acquisition modules is to provide support to students by providing them with the skills and vocabulary to be able to communicate on generic academic and generic social levels. Although these modules focus on general language skills, a need exists for more specific courses, in other words, courses in language for specific purposes.A requirement for enrolling in the course Afrikaans Language Acquisition 188 is that students must have passed Afrikaans First Additional Language at school. It is thus assumed that these students will already have good communication skills in Afrikaans. According to the distinction made by Cummins (2008) they already possess basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS) and must consequently develop cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP). These students do not need language acquisition classes, but rather language development classes. Courses for language for specific purposes and content based courses can be used for this purpose.First year students of the Faculty of Education at Stellenbosch University take Afrikaans as a subject at the Department of Afrikaans and Dutch in the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. The Department of Afrikaans and Dutch divides the first year students into two groups: first language speakers of Afrikaans (students who passed Afrikaans as Home Language in grade 12) and second language speakers of Afrikaans (students who passed Afrikaans as First Additional Language in grade 12). They are then respectively registered for Afrikaans and Dutch 178 or Afrikaans Language Acquisition 188.All second year Education students, irrespective of their home language, enrol for the following modules: Afrikaans as language of teaching and learning (278 or 288) and Afrikaans (ED) 278. According to the Yearbook of the University of Stellenbosch (2013:71-74) the following aspects form part of these modules:Afrikaans as language of teaching and learning: Effective use of Afrikaans as a medium of instruction Speaking and listening for different purposes and target groups. Reading for comprehension purposes to respond on a variety of texts. Writing for a variety of purposes and target groups. Suitable and effective use of language structures and conventions.Afrikaans (ED): Approaches to language teaching, communicative language teaching. Exploration of learning outcomes and assessment standards. Visual and cultural literacy, text dynamics. Introduction to assessment in language.The home languages of students are not taken into consideration in the assessment opportunities for these modules. All students are expected to be able to use Afrikaans at a sufficient level especially with the aim of future teaching in Afrikaans.Since South Africa is diverse in terms of language and culture, teachers (and student teachers) must be prepared for effective teaching to be challenging as learners are expected to use language at a high academic level (Van der Walt and Ruiters 2011:96). Van der Walt and Ruiters (2011:96) emphasize that linguistic diversity, as found in Western Cape schools, has a direct influence on the learner’s chances of success and education courses must prepare student teachers to be able to teach in these multilingual contexts. According to Van der Walt and Ruiters (2011:96) it is especially in the foundation and intermediate phases of teaching instruction where it is important for the teacher to be able to function in a multilingual context.The Language Policy for Higher Education (2002) endorses multilingualism and language diversity in tertiary education. The issues relating to multilingualism in tertiary contexts and the design of vocational language teaching programs has not yet received enough attention in research. The teaching of languages includes courses for specific purposes to adult learners who have not received much attention in Afrikaans second language research. Therefore, this study on the needs analysis, which can serve as basis for the design of a vocational language teaching program for teaching students, has been undertaken.The framework of the Language Policy for Higher Education (2002: 11) specifies the use of Afrikaans as a medium of academic expression and communication in higher education. It encourages the study of additional languages (including Afrikaans). Where students do not have a sufficiently advanced level of proficiency in the language of instruction, effective courses should be available to improve and develop students’ language abilities and skills in the language of instruction. Jordan (1997), Van Dyk (2005) and Van Rensburg and Weideman (2002) show a direct relationship between academic language proficiency levels and successful study. Therefore, students must achieve a sufficient level of academic language proficiency in Afrikaans in order to be successful in their studies. This is especially important because of the double and parallel medium in which undergraduate teaching is received at several higher education institutions.The purpose of this article is to address the specific needs of first year Education students with Afrikaans as a second language with the aim of designing a task-based course for Afrikaans for specific purposes. A needs analysis can be used to ensure that organisational, educational and methodological factors are attended to during syllabus design. More benefits of needs analysis include that teaching methods can improve, teachers can adapt to the different language learners in their classrooms, and language learners can be lead through the learning process. This article presents a series of methodological steps, together with the application thereof, that can be followed in a needs analysis with the eventual aim of course design. Ellis (2003:351) defines the task-based approach as utilizing “tasks to provide free practice in the use of a specific linguistic feature that has been previously presented and practised in exercises”. The abbreviation ED (Education) refers to modules that are specifically designed for Education students.
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